If I want to develop a new observation operator that involves horizontal and vertical integration of the graupel field (e.g., on a 15x15 km^2 area mass column), should the integration be done outside of UFO? The horizontal integration needs adaptive number of grid points in the buff zone (determined based on model resolutions, e.g., 2 grids for 3-km and 7 grids for 1-km resolution) for parallel run. Should I enlarge the buff zone in IODA?

In current practice, both integrations should be done over UFO side. Current UFO has a couple of bending angle operators, which have vertical integration.

The inquiry of horizontal grids would be a little bit tricky. However, JEDI is working on refactoring the geoval locations, which will make it easier.

Thanks for your reply. Can you tell me where to find the bending angle operators that involves vertical integration among the following ufo directories?

aerosols/ backgrounderroridentity/ crtm/ marine/ rttov/ timeoper/

atmsfcinterp/ backgrounderrorvertinterp/ filters/ obslocalization/ rttovcpp/ utils/

atmvertinterp/ basis/ gnssro/ predictors/ sattcwv/ variabletransforms/

atmvertinterplay/ categoricaloper/ groundgnss/ profile/ scatwind/

avgkernel/ compositeoper/ identity/ radarradialvelocity/ sfcpcorrected/

It would be great if capability of horizontal integration could be considered when refactoring the geoval locations.

Hi rkong, you can find the bending angle operators under the gnssro/ directory. All of the subdirectories that start with the letter â€˜bâ€™ contain independent operators that calculate bending angle. I would check out the BndROPP2D/ one as my understanding is that is only one that currently is truly 2D and might be the most applicable to what you want to do with the Graupel fields.

Michael

Thank you for your reply, that is very helpful. I will take a look at those directories.